This question recently came up on the Local Search forum. A user had recently verified a Google Business Profile (GBP) by phone and a few days later it said that they needed to verify it by video as well. There are multiple ways Google allows you to verify a listing (phone, text, email, video recording, live video call, or postcard).
At first, it looks like something at Google is broken (we all know they break stuff a lot with GBP), but it’s actually working as intended. In their help center article on verification, it states “You may need to verify with more than one method.” Google requiring more verification might seem like a pain, but it actually is a good thing because it helps them combat SPAM and fake listings on Google Maps, which is a huge problem. If you got an easy option for the first verification like phone or text, you will likely have to verify the listing by video or postcard later.